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One correct dentary fragment which have P/3-M/3 (Pal 59); one correct dentary fragment with Meters/2-M/step 3 (Pal 61)

August 5, 2022
One correct dentary fragment which have P/3-M/3 (Pal 59); one correct dentary fragment with Meters/2-M/step 3 (Pal 61)

Differential diagnosis. Oxacron differs from Caintheriinae by the visibility regarding subtriangular top molars instead crested appearance, a smaller postparacristula, narrow premolars, a weakened postprotoconulid, a beneficial biradiculate P/step 1, diastemata ranging from P/2-P/step three and P1/-P2/, and an effective protocone so much more mesial as compared to paracone to your P4/. They differs also regarding Plesiomeryx and you will Caenomeryx variety from the smaller size, a smaller sized protocone with the P3/, plus the lack of a protocone into the P2/. They differs from Cainotherium from the shorter size, its lack of cingula/ids toward premolars, a triangular P3/, in addition to presence off a valley between the entoconid in addition to mesoconid into all the way down molars. Oxacron is actually famous regarding other Oxacroninae Paroxacron because of the smaller premolars, an excellent P1/, P/step 1, and you may P/2 caniniforms, a shorter mesial lobe towards P3/, a great triangular P4/, also an inferior paraconule with the upper molars. Ultimately, Oxacron differs from Palembertina gen. late. by many emails (get a hold of significantly more than).

Procedure from Palembert. Palembert is located in the newest Quercy phosphorites area (South-west away from France) close to the town out of Caylus (Tarn-et-Garonne, France).


Breakdown. Oxacron courtoisii out of Palembert is only documented by their down dentition which have two fragmentary dentaries. Depending on the alveola trend from Pal 59 (Contour 2A-B), the brand new P/1 is biradiculate. Short diastemata occur between P/1-P/dos and you may P/2-P/step three. P/step three and you can P/cuatro is quick. Brand new P/step three gift suggestions a robust protoconid and you can a primary distal cristid lingually curved. The fresh new P/cuatro reveals a great protoconid even more mesial compared to metaconid. The talonid basin try highest with a small postprotoconulid and you can a quick hypoconid. New entoconid is extremely poor.

The reduced molars (Pal 59, Pal 61; Figure 2A-D) present this new “Caintotherium package” with around three large lingual cuspids: an excellent mesial metaconid, good medial metaconulid, and you will an excellent distal entoconid. The new paraconid is actually brief. This new metaconulid was high, from the the newest metaconid and you can split by the a lengthy mediocristid. The talonid is bucco-lingually limited with a giant centroconulid and you can an excellent postendocentroconulid lengthened distolingually. The new entoconid is actually looped and distal as compared to hypoconid. The new M/step three merchandise a giant hypoconulid versus an excellent posthypocristulid. New mesial cingulid is quite higher.

Brand new mandible (Pal 59) suggests several mental foramina to the horizontal ramus, one beneath the mesial element of P/dos plus one underneath the mesial part of P/4 (Contour 2B). The latest lateral ramus is actually gracile and shallow, and its top is quite constant between your premolar area and you can the past molar. The fresh new angular apophysis, not managed, is mesially delimited from the a powerful incisura vasorum (Pal 59, Buddy 60; Profile 2B, 2D).

Phylogenetic Investigation

New cladistic study retained one parsimonious forest (length = 183, Structure List [CI] = 0.forty eight, Retention Index [RI] = 0.73, CI with just parsimony-informative emails = 0.45; Shape cuatro), reflecting a properly-arranged rule and you will apparently poor homoplasy. The newest topology is congruent with this regarding Weppe et al. (2020), brand new taxon Palembertina deplasi nov. gen. nov. sp. seeking the lay within the monophyletic Cainotheriidae, just like the aunt taxon into the clade C (Oxacroninae, Cainotheriinae). Aforementioned gathers a couple of subfamilies: Oxacroninae, that have Oxacron and you can Paroxacron; and you can Cainotheriinae, which have Plesiomeryx, Caenomeryx, and you can Cainotherium.

Brand new monophyly from Cainotheriidae, together with Palembertina gen. biguous synapomorphies (Bremer directory [BI] = 4). He or she is described as the exposure to their upper molars, of: a huge parastyle the same as other forms (8 1 ; RI = 0.67), an excellent distostyle (11 step one ; RI = 0.89), a quite strong dilambdodonty (22 step one ; RI = 0.88), a postparacristula (29 step one ; RI = 0.86), and you can deficiencies in preprotocrista and paraconule junction (17 0 ; RI = 0.67); on their all the way down molars, they present: a large (thirty six 1 ; RI = step 1.000) and you can customized metaconulid (37 step one ; RI = step 1.00), a beneficial neotrigonid (51 step one ; RI = step one.00), and the absence of hypoconulid on Yards/step one and you can Yards/dos (41 0 ; RI = 0.75). In this Cainotheriidae, Palembertina gen. nov. is the earliest offshoot and you may looks like the latest cousin taxon to this new clade C (Oxacroninae, Cainotheriinae). They reveals about three autapomorphies: a short diastema between P/2-P/3 (six step one ; RI = 0.33), as well as good looped mesostyle (10 0 ; RI = 0.50) and an enormous distostyle (12 step 1 ) to the top molars. The newest clade C (BI = 2) was backed by half dozen low-unclear synapomorphies, into higher molars: a beneficial distal protocone (thirteen 2 ; RI = 0.94), a little cingulum nearby the latest protocone (20 step 1 ; RI = 0.58), and you can an extended postprotocrista (twenty eight 1 ; RI = 0.50); towards down molars: an extremely distal entoconid (43 2 ; RI = 1.00), and the absence of an excellent basin-shaped hypoconulid (40 0 ; RI = 0.75) as well as posthypocristulid (55 0 ; RI = 0.67) to your M/step three. In this clade C, Oxacroninae (BI=1) is actually supported by a beneficial protocone so much more mesial as compared to paracone toward P4/ (62 step one ; RI = 0.50) and you can good biradiculate P/step one (77 step 1 ; RI = step 1.00), and you may Cainotheriinae (BI = 1) is supported by an effective postparacristula buccally much time joining the fresh preprotocrista towards upper molars (32 1 ; RI = 1.00) and you may an enormous postprotoconulid toward straight down premolars (76 1 ; RI = step 1.00).

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